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您所在的位置:济南朗阁托福 > 托福考试问题 > 新托福考试,来自ETS的四大Tips
新托福考试,来自ETS的四大Tips
新闻文章排行榜>> 丨2020-12-12 作者:济南朗阁 点击数:

核心提示:下面是来自ETS的英语学习技巧, 朗阁托福 培训中心的专家们整理出来,希望对备考的各位烤鸭有所帮助。 Probably the best way for English-language learners to develop the skills being measured on the TOEFL iBT test is to study in an English progra

 

      下面是来自ETS的英语学习技巧,朗阁托福培训中心的专家们整理出来,希望对备考的各位烤鸭有所帮助。

 

Probably the best way for English-language learners to develop the skills being measured on the TOEFL iBT test is to study in an English program that focuses on

•   communication using all four skills, especially speaking

•   integrated skills (e.g., reading/listening/speaking, reading/listening/w ruing)

 

The following tips have been created by ETS, and are written for students (although teachers will also find them useful).

 

A. Reading Tips

 

The best way to improve reading skills is to read frequently and to read many different types of texts in various subject areas (sciences, social sciences, arts, business, etc.)- The Internet is one of the best resources for this, but books, magazines, and journals are very helpful as well. It is best to progress to reading texts that are more academic in style, the kind that would be found in university courses.

 

Here are some suggestions for ways to build skills for the three reading purposes included in TOEFL iBT.

 

1.  Reading to find information

•   Scan the passages to find and highlight key facts (dates, numbers, terms) and information.

•   Practice this frequently to increase reading rate and fluency.

 

2.  Reading for basic comprehension

•   Increase vocabulary knowledge, perhaps by using flashcards.

•   Rather than carefully reading each word and each sentence, practice skimming a passage quickly to get a general impression of the main idea.

•   Build up the ability to skim quickly and to identify the major points.

•   After skimming a passage, read it again more carefully and write down the main idea, major points, and important facts.

•   Choose some unfamiliar words in the passage and guess the meaning from the context (surrounding sentences).

•   Select all the pronouns (he, him, they, them, etc.) in a passage and identify which nouns they refer to in the passage.

•   Practice making inferences and drawing conclusions based on what is implied in the passage as a whole.

 

3.  Reading to learn

•   Identify the passage type (e.g., classification, cause-and-effect, compare-and-contrast, problem-and-solution, description, narration, etc.)

•   Do the following to organize the information in the passage:

•   Create an outline of the passage to distinguish between major and minor points.

•   If the passage describes the order of a process or is a narration, create an outline of the steps in the process or narration.

•   If the passage categorizes information, create a chart and place the information in appro­priate categories. Note: In the TOEFL iBT test, test takers do not have to create such a chart. Instead, a chart with possible answer choices is provided for them, and they are required to fill in the chart with the correct choices. Practicing this skill will help test takers think about categorizing information, and be able to do so with ease.

•   Create a written or oral summary of the passages using these charts and outlines. Note: This is not measured in the Reading section, but practicing summarizing skills is useful for the inte­grated task in the Writing and Speaking sections.

•   Paraphrase individual sentences in a passage, and then progress to paraphrasing an entire para­graph. Note: The Reading section measures the ability to recognize paraphrases. The ability to paraphrase is also important for the integrated tasks in the Writing and Speaking sections of the test.

 

B. Listening Tips

 

The best way to improve listening skills is to listen frequently lo many different types of material in various subject areas (sciences, social sciences, arts, business, etc.). Of course, watching movies and TV and listening to radio is an excellent way to practice listening. Audio tapes and CDs of talks are available in libraries and bookstores; those with transcripts of the listening material are particularly helpful. The Internet is also a great resource for listening material, including these valuable sites:

 

•   www.npr.org—The National Public Radio site provides a searchable archive section where any topic can be searched. Transcripts of the material can be purchased on the site.

•   www.bbc.co.uk/radio and www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish These two Web sites of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) provide many options for streaming audio. Transcripts of the material are also available on these sites.

 

Here are some suggestions for ways to strengthen skills for the three listening purposes included in the TOEFL iBT test.

 

1.  Listening for basic comprehension

•   Increase vocabulary knowledge, perhaps by using flashcards.

•   Focus on the content and flow of material. Do not be distracted by the speaker's style and delivery.

•   Anticipate what a person is going to say as a way of staying focused.

•   Stay active by asking mental questions, (e.g., What main idea is the professor communicating?)

•   Copy the words, "main idea, major points, and important details" on different lines of paper. Listen carefully, and write these things down while listening. Listen again until you write down all major points and important details.

•   Listen to a portion of a lecture or talk and either orally summarize or write a brief summary of major points. Gradually increase the amount listened to and summarized. Note: This is not measured in the Listening section, bin practicing summarizing skills is useful for the integrated tasks in the Writing and Speaking sections.

 

2.  Listening for pragmatic understanding

•   Think about what each speaker hopes to accomplish; that is, what is the purpose of the speech or conversation? Is the speaker apologizing, complaining, making suggestions, etc.?

•   Notice the way each speaker talks. Is the level of language formal or casual? How certain does each speaker sound? Is the speaker's voice calm or emotional? What does the speaker's tone of voice tell you?

•   Notice the degree of certainty of the speaker. How sure is the speaker about the information? Does the speaker's tone of voice indicate something about his/her degree of certainty?

•   Listen for changes in topic or digressions.

•   Watch a recorded TV or movie comedy and pay attention to how stress and intonation patterns are used to convey meaning.

 

3.  Listening to connect and synthesize ideas

•   Think about how the lecture is organized. Listen for the signal words that indicate the introduction, major steps or ideas, examples, and the conclusion or summary.

•   Identify the relationships of ideas in the information being discussed. Possible relationships include: cause-and-effect, compare-and-contrast, steps in a process.

•   Listen for words that show connections and relationships between ideas.

•   Listen to recorded material and stop the recording at various points and try to predict what information or idea will be expressed next.

•   Create an outline of the information discussed while listening or after listening.

 

C. Speaking Tips

 

The best way to practice speaking is with native speakers of English. For those who are living in English-speaking countries, it is sometimes difficult to make the effort to meet people who speak English. One way of meeting people is to become involved in student organizations and clubs. For students who are serious about improving their speaking skills and overall communication skills, this kind of involvement is very important.

For those who are not living in an English-speaking country, finding native speakers of English to speak with can be quite challenging. In some countries, there are English-speaking tutors or assistants who help students with their conversation skills. It is critical to speak as often as possible with them, and ask if classroom assistants offer private tutoring. Another way students can practice speaking is to join a club (hat involves speaking in English about movies, music, travel, etc. If no such clubs exist, students can start their own clubs and invite any native speakers they know to join.

 

Here are some suggestions for ways to strengthen skills for the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT test.

 

Independent Speaking Tasks

•   Make a list of topics that are familiar, and practice speaking about them.

•   Begin by describing a familiar place or talking about a personal experience.

•   A more advanced exercise would be to state an opinion or a preference and then present reasons clearly and with detail.

•   Another is to make a recommendation and explain why it is the best way to proceed.

•   Practice giving 1-minute responses to each topic.

 

Integrated Speaking Tasks

•   Find a textbook that includes questions about the material at the end of chapters. Practice answering the questions orally.

•   Read a short article (100-200 words). Make an outline that includes only the major points of the article. Use the outline to orally summarize the information. Then add detail to the outline and orally summarize again.

•   Find listening and reading material on the same topic. The material can provide similar or different views. The Internet and the library are good places to find information.

•   Take notes on the listening and reading material and do the following:

1.  Orally summarize the information in both. Be sure to paraphrase using different words and grammatical structures.

2.  Orally synthesize by combining information from the reading and listening material and explain how they relate.

 

Please note: Taking notes throughout the TOEFL iBT test is allowed. Since the reading and listening material in the integrated Speaking task is very brief, taking notes on the material may not be necessary- However, the activity described above will help you prepare for the academic environment you plan to enter. Also, if you can do well with this kind of activity, you will most likely succeed on the integrated Speaking tasks on the TOEFL iBT test.

 

•   State and support an opinion about the ideas and information presented in the reading and listening material.

•   If the reading and/or listening material describes a problem, suggest and explain a solution to the problem.

•   Recognize the attitude of the speaker or the writer of the original material through intonation, stress, and word choice. This helps you understand his/her point of view and plan an appropriate response.

 

All Speaking Tasks

•   Increase your vocabulary and learn to use idiomatic speech appropriately.

•   Learn grammatical structures so well that you can use them naturally when speaking.

•   Work on pronunciation, including word stress, intonation patterns, and pauses. There are a number of products and Web sites that can help you develop your pronunciation skills.

•   When practicing for the TOEFL iBT test using the tips above, take around 15 seconds to plan before beginning to speak. Write down a few key words and ideas, but do not attempt to write down exactly what you are going to say. (Raters will be able to detect responses that are read and give them a lower rating.)

•   Use signal words and phrases to introduce new information or ideas, to connect ideas, and to mark important words or ideas. This will help the listener easily follow what you are saying. For example, "on one hand..." "but on the other hand...", "what that means is...", "The first reason is...", "another difference is..."

•   Make recordings of the above activities and listen to make sure the pronunciation and fluency are clear and easy to understand. An English teacher or tutor can evaluate the speech using the ap­propriate TOEFL iBT Speaking rubric.

 

D. Writing Tips

 

Integrated Writing Tasks

•   Find a textbook that includes questions about the material at the end of chapters. Practice writing answers to the questions.

•   Read an article that is about 300-400 words long. Make an outline that includes the major points and important details of the article. Use the outline to write a summary of the information and ideas. Summaries are brief and clearly communicate only the major points and important details. Be sure to paraphrase using different words and grammatical structures. (See tips on paraphrasing below.)

•   Practice paraphrasing frequently. Paraphrasing involves restating something from the source material in one's own words. It is critical to use different words and grammar to convey the same ideas when paraphrasing. In English-speaking countries, you must follow the rules for citing when you use the same words of the original speaker or author. If you do not do this, it is considered a form of intellectual stealing, called plagiarism. While this may be accepted in some cultures, it is not acceptable in most English-speaking academic settings. Therefore, paraphrasing skills are important to learn.

•   Learn to find synonyms with ease. Pick ten to fifteen words or phrases in a reading passage and quickly think of synonyms without looking them up in a dictionary or thesaurus.

•   When writing a paraphrase of a reading passage, use only your notes. If you haven't taken notes, write the paraphrase without looking at the original passage. Then check the paraphrase with the original passage to make sure that it is factually accurate and that you have used different words and grammatical structures.

•   Learn and carefully follow the rules for citing known and unknown sources that you have quoted or paraphrased.

•   Find listening and reading material on the same topic. The material can provide similar or different views. The Internet and the library are good places to find such information.

•   Take notes on the listening and reading material and do the following:

1.  Summarize the information and ideas in both.

2.  Synthesize the information in both and discuss how the reading and listening material relate. Explain how the ideas are alike, how one idea expands upon another, or how the ideas are different or contradict each other.

 

Independent Writing Tasks

•   Make a list of familiar topics and practice writing about them.

•   For each topic state an opinion or a preference and then support it with evidence.

•   Practice planning and writing at least one essay for each topic. Be sure to take 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise each essay.

•   Think about and list all ideas related to a topic or task before writing. This is also called "prewriting."

•   Identify one main idea and some major points to support that idea, and plan how to communicate them (for example, by creating an outline to organize your ideas).

•   Create a focused thesis statement and use it to develop all the ideas presented in the essay.

•   Develop the essay by using appropriate explanation and detail.

 

All Writing Tasks

•   Increase your vocabulary and learn to use idiomatic speech appropriately.

•   Learn grammatical structures so well that you can use them naturally when writing.

•   Learn the conventions of spelling, punctuation, and layout (paragraph creation, etc.).

•   Express information in an organized manner, displaying unity of thought and coherence.

•   Use signal words and phrases, such as "on one hand" or "in conclusion" to create a clear structure for your response.

•   Ask an English teacher or tutor to evaluate your writing by using the appropriate TOEFL iBT Writing rubric.

 

 

 

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