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直接事实题（Factual Information Questions）是新托福每次必考题型，而且每次题量较多，通常每篇文章3-6个左右。
☆ According to the passage, which/ what/ why/how/who/where/when….
☆ The author’s description of X mentions which of the following?
☆ According to the paragraph, X occurred because …
illustrate for example next such
For instance to illustrate such as
Give reasons as a result of because of one reason is
because due to since
show result accordingly consequently therefore
as a result otherwise thus
compare both like similarly
equally … the same similar to
contrast although instead rather
conversely nevertheless unlike
however on the contrary whereas
in contrast on the other hand while
add also finally moreover
another first, second, third… not only … but also
as well as furthermore too
limit although except for however
but even though yet
emphasize certainly indeed most importantly
clearly in fact surely
It should be obvious that cetaceans--- whales, porpoises, and dolphins--- are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales lookes like. Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.
In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans?
○ It clearly indicates that cetaceans are mammals.
○ It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals.
○ It is the main difference between cetaceans and land-dwelling mammals.
○ It cannot yield clues about the origins of cetaceans.
解题步骤：首先我们读题目，确定关键词为“a blowhole in cetaceans”；接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals”；然后读选项，找到和原文对应的内容的改写为“It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals”, 因此正确答案为第二个选项。
The fossil consists of a complete skull of an archaeocyte, an extinct group of ancestors of modern cetaceans. Although limited to a skull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans. The skull is cetacean-like but its jawbones lack the enlarged space that is filled with fat or oil and used for receiving underwater sound in modern whales. Pakicetus probably detected sound through the ear opening as in land mammals. The skull also lacks a blowhole, another cetacean adaptation for diving. Other features, however, show experts that Pakicetus is a transitional form between a group of extinct flesh-eating mammals, the mesonychids, and cetaceans. It has been suggested that Pakicetus fed on fish in shallow water and was not yet adapted for life in the open ocean. It probably bred and give birth on land.
Pakicetus and modern cetaceans have similar
○ hearing structures
○ adaptation for living
○ skull shapes
○ breeding locations
解题步骤：首先我们读题目，确定关键词为“Pakicetus”和“similar”；接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“Although limited to a skull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans. The skull is cetacean-like…”；然后读选项，找到和原文对应的内容的改写为“skull shapes”, 因此正确答案为第三个选项。
Another major discovery was made in Egypt in 1989. several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethy Sea and now exposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hint leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foof-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.
The hind leg of Basilosaurus was a significant find because it showed that Basilosaurus
○ lived later than Ambulocetus natans
○ lived at the same time as Pkicetus
○ was able to swim well
○ could not have walked on land
解题步骤：首先我们读题目，确定关键词为“The hind leg”；接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“a complete hint leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foof-long Basilosaurus on land”；然后读选项，找到和原文对应的内容的改写为“could not have walked on land”, 因此正确答案为第四个选项。
Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water. The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration. Water absorption is greatly reduced, consequently runoff is increased, resulting in accelerated erosion rates. The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.
According to the 3rd paragraph, the loss of natural vegetation has which of the following consequences for soil?
○ Increased stony content
○ Reduced water absorption
○ Increased numbers of spaces in the soil
○ Reduced water runoff
解题步骤：首先我们读题目，确定关键词为“the loss of natural vegetation” 和“consequence for soil”；接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water”；然后读选项，找到和原文对应的内容的替换为“Reduced water absorption”, 因此正确答案为第二个选项。
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